King Tutankhamun: The treasure trove revealed inside his tomb 100 years ago this week

Patience is a virtue — but it must have been wearing thin at Highclere Castle in the summer of 1922 as Lord Carnarvon pondered whether to allow Howard Carter one last season of excavation work in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings.

He had already spent £5-6 million in today’s money, and was disappointed that his investment was showing such little return.

But he rolled the dice one more time — and, 100 years ago this week, was rewarded with arguably the greatest ever archaeological discovery.

Carter and his team had been investigating a line of rocks in front of the tomb of Ramesses VI when a young water boy stumbled on a stone that turned out to be the top flight of covered stairs.

After partially digging out the steps, they came across a doorway stamped with oval seals and hieroglyphics.

This was just the start of things to come.

At that point, most of us would have dug out — or bashed down — the door to see what it was concealing, but Carter loyally deferred to his patron.

‘At last have made wonderful discovery in Valley; a magnificent tomb with seals intact; re-covered same for your arrival; congratulations,’ he reported in a telegram.

Lord Carnarvon and his daughter, Evelyn, left Highclere immediately, arriving in Luxor on November 23.

The next day, with the Carnarvons present, Carter made a breach in the corner of a second door deeper underground, which enabled him to peer in by candlelight.

‘Can you see anything?’ Carnarvon asked him.

‘Yes — wonderful things!’ said Carter.

Wonderful, priceless and hidden for 3,000 years, including, ultimately, the sarcophagus of King Tutankhamun — ‘the Boy King’, who came to the throne aged eight or nine and ruled for a decade before his premature death, at the age of 19, in 1323BC, after which he was mummified and buried in a tomb filled with artwork, jewellery and other treasures.

Daily Mail correspondent Arthur Weigall was present when the tomb was opened and saw Lord Carnarvon enter.

Over the next few weeks — now with the eager Egyptian authorities in attendance — the full extent of the discovery revealed itself: an antechamber filled with thrones, alabaster vases, musical instruments and dismantled chariots; the Treasury, containing King Tut’s internal organs and 34 miniature statues of Tut; an annexe storing weapons and household goods; and the Burial Chamber, with the king’s gold tomb.

Ultimately, more than 5,000 items were recovered — and excavation work continues to this day.

For Lord Carnarvon — who would die from an infected mosquito bite a mere five months later — it was a triumph after a lifetime of interest in Egypt; and, for Carter, a reward as an archaeologist in the country where he had worked from the age of 17.

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  • 28 минут назад 02.12.2022Science
    Lost Peruvian fresco known only from photographs rediscovered after 100 years

    An ancient, pre-Columbian fresco that was lost for more than a century — and only known from black-and-white photographs — has been rediscovered in northern Peru. Thought to be around 1,000 years old, the artwork forms part of the temple, which was built by the Moche civilization that flourished between around 100–700 AD. According to the experts, the temple was constructed in veneration of the Moon, the rain, iguanas and spiders.

    The team that unearthed the missing mural was led by archaeologist Sâm Ghavami of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He said: “It’s an exceptional discovery.

    “It is rare to unearth wall paintings of such quality in pre-Columbian archaeology. The composition of this painting is unique in the history of mural art in pre-Hispanic Peru.”

    The mural is around 98 feet long and is adorned with images of mythological scenes in various colours — blue, brown, mustard yellow, red and white — the paint of which is said to be extremely well-preserved.

    It is unusual, also, in how it appears to sport a mixture of styles and elements from two pre-Incan cultures, both the Moche and the Lambayeque. The latter group lived along Peru’s northern coastline between around 750 and 1375 AD.

    The Lambayeque — also known as the Sicán — are responsible for some of the most iconic artefacts from the ancient Americas. They were prolific producers of masks and goldwork, among other works of art.

    Experts believe that the Lambayeque culture emerged as the previously dominant Wari civilization faded. Their founding city was Huaca Chotuna, although the group endured for some 12 generations with rulers overseeing a loose network of cities linked via family ties.

    One of the most significant Lambayeque sites was Batán Grande in the La Leche Valley. This settlement features a system of irrigation canals alongside 17 massive burial mounds. These pyramid-shaped structures contained tombs that held mummified bodies, sacrificial remains and precious goods made from gold, silver and copper alloys.

    Historians believe that the Lambayeque were ultimately defeated and forcibly assimilated into the Chimú empire around the year 1375. This led to a continuity in Andean art being perpetuated across various subsequent cultures.

    According to the researchers, one section of the lengthy fresco at Huaca Pintada features a procession of warriors heading towards a deity with a bird-like appearance.

    Mr Ghavami said that the images “appear to be inspired by the idea of a sacred hierarchy built around a cult of ancestors and their intimate links with the forces of nature.”

    The archaeologist is planning now to start the painstaking work of fully deciphering the elaborate mural’s message.

    However, he told the AFP, he thinks “it could be interpreted as a metaphorical image of the political and religious order of the region’s ancient inhabitants.”

    The photographs of the mural — the only previous proof of its existence — were taken in the year 1916 by the German ethnologist Hans Heinrich Bruning, who lived in Peru. He studied both the Aguaruna, the indigenous people who primarily live along the Marañón River and some of its tributaries.

    After some initial resistance, Mr Brunning was able to study the Moche people — completing a dictionary of their language in 1917 — after participating in local rituals.

    He became aware of the Huaca Pintada temple site after hearing of the activities of treasure hunters who had tried to loot it, but found nothing of value to them to steal.

    After Mr Brunning took his snapshots of the fresco, it became obscured under thick foliage and lost to the annals of history — until the photographs piqued Mr Ghavami’s interest.

    It took the archaeologist and his group of local students four years, however, to locate and visit the artwork, having struggled for some time to obtain permission from the landowners to be able to visit the site to study it.

  • 2 часа, 30 минут назад 02.12.2022Science
    Twitter offers advertisers incentives – matching $500K in spending as Elon Musk platform struggles

    Twitter is offering advertisers major incentives to spend money on the platform as a way to lure them back after Elon Musk’s buyout prompted 50 of them to pull back.

    The social network is offering advertisers who book at least $500,000 in ‘incremental spending’ to have 100% of their spending matched – capped at $1 million – according to an email viewed by the Wall Street Journal.

    Musk’s platform is reeling in the wake of seeing dozens of advertisers including Chipotle, Wells Fargo, Verizon and Nestle pausing or completely stopping their ad spending.

    The new advertising offer is only valid for purchases that run before the end of this year, according to the Journal. However, many brands are not biting due to safety concerns about the social network, executives at four of the largest global media agencies told Ad Age.

    DailyMail.com has contacted Twitter for comment on this story.

    Advertising comprises about 90% of Twitter’s revenue – it accounted for $4.5 billion of its $5.08 billion revenue in 2021 – and Musk has previously complained about advertisers having left because they were pressured by activist groups to do so.

    The California-based company has suffered a number of setbacks since Musk’s $44 billion takeover, including the botched rollout of its Twitter Blue subscription service. For a fee, brands or any users can pay a fee to have access to certain services and be verified as legitimate.

    However, upon the initial release, a number of users took advantage of the feature to impersonate major brands and send out tweets that in some cases sent stock prices tumbling.

    Twitter paused the program and has said it will relaunch with more safeguards in place as well as color-coded checkmarks to distinguish between verified accounts for companies and those for regular users.

    The long list of companies that have paused spending includes General Mills, General Motors, Hilton Worldwide, Whole Foods Market and Yum! Brands.

    Musk previously blasted Apple in a series of tweets for reducing its spending on the platform. On Wednesday, the mogul tweeted about having cleared the air with Apple CEO Tim Cook during a visit to the company’s spaceship-style headquarters in Cupertino, California.

  • 2 часа, 36 минут назад 02.12.2022Science
    Artemis I leaves lunar orbit and begins 10-day journey back to Earth

    NASA’s Orion spacecraft is on its way back to Earth after successfully leaving lunar orbit as part of a 25-day mission.

    The uncrewed Artemis I voyage is the first in a series of flights aimed at returning humans to the moon by 2025.

    It has been successful so far, but a vital test still lies ahead as engineers anxiously wait to see if the capsule’s heat shield holds up on re-entry.

    Orion will have to withstand temperatures of 5,000F (2,760C) as it travels at speeds of 24,500 mph before splashing down in the Pacific Ocean on December 11.

    It is vital because next time around, on Artemis II, people will be on board and they will have to endure returning at speeds 32 times faster than the speed of sound – matching the fastest a human has ever travelled.

    Yesterday Orion successfully completed a lunar departure burn to begin heading home after successful moon orbits.

    The burn began at 16:54 ET (21:54 GMT) and lasted just under two minutes.

    ‘Orion has had a successful and nominal, 1 minute and 45 second, distant retrograde orbit departure burn,’ NASA said during a broadcast of the manoeuvre.

    The spacecraft had arrived at the moon on November 21 after travelling some 230,000 miles (370,000km) in five days.

    The capsule zoomed over the landing sites of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 as it came within 80 miles (130km) of the lunar surface.

    It flew farther than any spacecraft built for humans has ever done – around 40,000 miles (64,000km) beyond the far side of the moon.

    Orion will also stay in space the longest without docking to a space station, and return home faster and hotter than ever before.

    If the mission is successful, the uncrewed Artemis I will be followed by a human trip around the moon in 2024 and could lead to the first woman and first person of colour following in Neil Armstrong’s footsteps the year after.

    The plan is to return human boots to the moon on Artemis III in 2025 and ultimately build a permanent lunar outpost with a view to exploring deeper into the cosmos so people can travel to Mars.

    It would be the first time people have stepped on the moon since 1972.

    Artemis I blasted off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 01:47 ET (06:47 GMT) on November 16.

    Named after the twin sister of Apollo in Greek mythology, Artemis signifies the modern incarnation of the US space agency’s Apollo programme, which sent astronauts to the moon for the first time.

    This mission has no humans on board, but as long as everything goes smoothly and the Orion capsule splashes down to Earth as planned, then the hope is that a four-person crew can make a trip around the moon in two years’ time.

    Instead of humans, a trio of human-sized test dummies are standing in for the crew in the Orion capsule, their bodies swarming with sensors to measure radiation and vibration.

    In the commander’s seat is Commander Moonikin Campos — a tribute to electrical engineer Arturo Campos, who played a key role in getting the troubled Apollo 13 mission safely back to Earth in 1970.

    Clad in a new Orion Crew Survival System spacesuit, the mannequin is providing NASA scientists with important data on what humans experience during a trip to the moon.

    Two other mannequins named Helga and Zohar are sitting in the Orion’s passenger seats. They reflect the US space agency’s determination that a manned flight to the moon will soon include a woman.

    The dummies have torsos made of materials that mimic a woman’s softer tissue, organs and bones, and are fitted with some 5,600 sensors and 34 radiation detectors to measure the amount of radiation exposure they encounter during the mission.

    One is wearing a radiation protection vest and the other isn’t.

    Artemis I is designed to show that the SLS rocket and Orion capsule are ready to carry astronauts for Artemis II, and ultimately the Artemis III mission to return humans to the moon.

  • 4 часа, 28 минут назад 02.12.2022Science
    See-through window coating that blocks heat could reduce air conditioning costs

    A transparent window coating that can help cool a building while using no energy and maintaining the view of the outside has been developed by researchers from the US. The technology — which was developed with the aid of quantum computers and machine learning — could help reduce the need for air conditioning units, which are needed to cool rooms that are heated by sunlight shining in through normal windows. It is estimated, in fact, that around 15 percent of the world’s energy consumption is devoted to cooling. The coating works, the researchers explained, by allowing visible light to pass through a window while keeping heat-producing parts of the electromagnetic spectrum out.

    The study was led by mechanical engineers Professor Tengfei Luo and Dr Seongmin Kim of the University of Notre Dame du Lac in Indiana. The coating — dubbed the “transparent radiative cooler” — is composed of various ultra-thin layers of materials that require assembly in a precise configuration.

    They said: “In the solar spectrum, an ideal transparent radiative cooler is expected to perfectly block ultraviolet and near-infrared photons to minimise optical heating of the enclosed space, as these wavelength regimes contribute approximately 50 percent of the total solar irradiance.

    “In the meantime, it should allow visible photons to pass through with maximal transmission efficiency to enable a clear field of vision.

    “Furthermore, the transparent radiative cooler should have high emission efficiency in the mid/long-wavelength infrared regime to achieve optimal radiative cooling performance via the ‘atmospheric window’.”

    To identify the optimum configuration and order or materials to produce the desired effect, the researchers created a computation model that allowed them to test every possible pattern of layers in a mere fraction of a second.

    Prof. Luo said: “I think the quantum computing strategy is as important as the material itself. Using this approach, we were able to find the best-in-class material.”

    From here, he added, his team was able to “design a radiative cooler and experimentally prove its cooling effect.”

    Guided by the results of their computer analysis, the researchers fabricated their special coating by layering silica, aluminium oxide and titanium oxide onto a glass base. Finally, the layers were topped off with the same polymer that is used to make contact lenses.

    The end product was a mere 1.2 microns thick — around 58 times thinner than the average human hair. According to the team, their transparent radiative cooler is capable of outperforming all other heat-reducing glass coatings already on the market.

    In fact, they said, “This cooler may lead to an annual energy saving of up to 86.3 megajoules per metre squared in hot climates compared with normal glass windows.”

    Alongside use in buildings, the transparent radiative cooler could also find application on the windows of cars and other such vehicles, helping to keep their interiors cooling even when parked or moving in the glare of the Sun.

    The coating technology, therefore, may help address some of the challenges humanity is likely to face as climate change leads to warmer temperatures across the globe.

    The researchers added: “On the basis of the measured optical properties, simulations showed the great potential of our transparent radiative cooler in saving cooling energy of buildings both in the U.S. and worldwide.

    “The optimised planar multilayer structures in the transparent radiative cooler can be potentially scaled up for practical applications because their fabrication can be achieved using state-of-the-art deposition techniques.

    They concluded: “Furthermore, the quantum annealing-assisted optimization scheme can be useful for material design in general, such as meta-materials for optical, thermal and mechanical applications.”

    The full findings of the study were published in the journal ACS Energy Letters.

  • 4 часа, 39 минут назад 02.12.2022Science
    How does Elon Musk’s Neuralink brain chip actually work?

    For the past six years, Elon Musk has been working on a chip designed to be implanted into human brains, with his neurotechnology company Neuralink.

    His ultimate goal is to develop a ‘brain-computer interface’ that will initially be used to help people with paralysis or motor neurone disease to communicate.

    It will allegedly allow them to operate computers and mobile devices using their thoughts, but could have further uses in years to come.

    So what exactly is the chip? How does it work and how will it cure all medical problems? Is is safe? MailOnline takes a look.

    Why is Neuralink in the news?

    Musk revealed the recent progress made with the implant – named ‘Link’ or ‘N1 Link’ – at the Neuralink ‘Show and Tell’ event on Wednesday.

    He said he is aiming to begin human trials in just six months, and that the chip’s first two applications will be curing blindness and restoring mobility.

    ‘Even if someone has never had vision, ever, like they were born blind, we believe we can still restore vision,’ he said.

    He also exclaimed that he was so confident in its potential, he would be willing to have an implant fitted in himself.

    He said: ‘You could have a Neuralink device implanted right now and you wouldn’t even know. I mean, hypothetically.

    ‘In fact, in one of these demos, I will.’

    The other uses for the chip could include saving and replaying memories, streaming music and even curing mental illnesses such as depression.

    How does it work?

    Neuralink’s system consists of a computer chip attached to tiny flexible threads stitched into the brain by a ‘sewing-machine-like’ robot.

    The robot removes a small chunk of the skull, connects the thread-like electrodes to certain areas of the brain, stitches up the hole and the only visible remains is a scar left behind from the incision.

    Musk has said that this procedure will take just 30 minutes, will not require general anaesthesia, and patients will be able to return home on the same day.

    The brain consists of special cells called neurons that transmit signals to other cells in the body, like our muscles and nerves.

    The electrodes of the Neuralink chip are able to read these signals, which are then translated into motor controls.

    This could control external technologies, such as computers or smartphones, or bodily functions, like muscle movement.

    ‘It’s like replacing a piece of the skull with a smartwatch,’ Musk has said.

    A small inductive charger will also be able to wirelessly connect to the implant to charge its battery outside the body.

    What will it be able to do?

    When plans to develop the brain-computer interface were first revealed, the firm positioned it as a way to enable people with quadriplegia to control technologies, like a computer or smartphone, with their mind.

    However, in the 2020 ‘Show and Tell’ demonstration, Musk alluded to the idea of ‘conceptual telepathy,’ which allows two individuals to communicate through thoughts with the help of technology.

    ‘In the future you will be able to save and replay memories,’ he said.

    ‘You could basically store your memories as a backup and restore the memories. You could potentially download them into a new body or into a robot body.’

    That same year, he also suggested that the chip would allow people to communicate without speaking, foreseeing a ‘symbiosis’ between humans and AI.

    During Wednesday’s event, he said that one of the current focuses of the Neuralink technology is to allow people with paralysis to actually regain motor skills.

    ‘As miraculous as that may sound, we are confident that it is possible to restore full-body functionality to someone who has a severed spinal cord,’ the tech mogul said at the event.

    He claimed that the chip would be able to restore sight, even in people who have been blind their whole life, as well as treat brain diseases such as Parkinson’s, dementia, and Alzheimer’s.

    Musk is known to share a lot of his thoughts on Twitter – even more so now that he has acquired the social network – and has discussed a few other potential applications of Neuralink.

    In a Twitter exchange with computer scientist, Austin Howard, he said that the device will eventually be able to stream music directly into one’s brain.

    ‘If we implement neuralink – can we listen to music directly from our chips? Great feature,’ Howard posted in a tweet on Sunday to which Musk replied simply, ‘Yes.’

    He also shared that the technology could help cure addiction and depression while responding to a Twitter user asking if the implant could ‘re-train part of the brain’ linked to the ailments.

    How safe is it?

    So far, the Neuralink implant has only been tested on animals, which has given mixed results.

    In the 2020 presentation, Musk unveiled the Neuralink chip to the public for the very first time, with a demonstration on a pig named Gertrude.

    Gertrude’s brain signals were visualised in real-time while she snuffled around her pen, that were being picked up by her implant.

    ‘This shows the beats of Link on the screen and you can see each of the spikes from the 1,024 electrodes implanted in the pigs brain,’ Musk said during the demo.

    ‘When she touches her snout to the ground, the neurons will fire and that is what makes the sound.’

    Another pig involved in the demonstration had once had an implant but then had it removed and was living a ‘healthy life’.

    The following year, Musk did another demonstration, which involved a macaque monkey with a brain chip that played a computer game by thinking alone.

    However, in February this year, Neuralink confirmed that monkeys had died during its tests, although denied any animal abuse.

    The latter was in response to claims made by a non-profit the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) in a complaint with the US Department of Agriculture.

    Concerns raised by PCRM in the complaint included an example of a monkey missing fingers and toes that may have been lost to ‘self mutilation’.

    Another is of a monkey with holes drilled in its skull to have electrodes implanted into the brain, and a third of one suffering from a brain haemorrhage.

    The majority of the monkeys had to be euthanised, or died as a result of procedures, according to the complaint.

    Jeremy Beckham, from PCRM, told the New York Pose that ‘pretty much every single monkey that had had implants put in their head suffered from pretty debilitating health effects’.

    Ahead of this week’s ‘Show and Tell’ event, the PCRM shared details of a lawsuit it filed against Neuralink relating the allegations of abuse.

    The lawsuit states the animals ‘suffered infections from the implanted electrodes placed in their brains’ and an ‘unapproved substance’ known as BioGlue ‘killed monkeys by destroying portions of their brains.’

    On top of claims of animal cruelty, experts warn that there could be privacy issues with brain implants.

    Dr. Susan Schneider, the founding director of the new Center for the Future Mind, told the Daily Mail in April 2021: ‘If the widespread use becomes hooking us to the cloud, not as therapies, and merge humans with AI the economic model will be to sell our data.

    ‘Our innermost thoughts would be sold to the highest bidder. Also, do we need a subscription that we pay for? What if for powers get ahold of our thoughts?’

    While this is less than reassuring, there have been some remarkable achievements made by other neurotechnology companies in recent months.

    In April it was announced that a Parkinson’s patient has had his symptoms reversed by a tiny deep brain stimulation device that was fitted in Bristol.

    Additionally, a severely paralysed patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) became the first to receive a permanent brain implant that could allow him to communicate telepathically.

    Musk also said that he’d be comfortable implanting a brain chip into one of his children, in response to a query during Wednesday’s ‘Show and Tell’ event.

    ‘I would say we’re at the point where at least, in my opinion, it would not be dangerous,’ he said.

    What tests still need to be done?

    The next step of the Neuralink implant will be testing it on human volunteers.

    At the Show and Tell event on Wednesday, Musk said that he has submitted ‘most of’ the paperwork for U.S. regulatory approval to begin human trials.

    He claimed that Neuralink would ‘probably’ be able to begin trialling the brain chip on humans in the next six months.

    However, the company has repeatedly missed internal deadlines to gain U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to start human trials, current and former employees have said.

    Musk approached biotech competitor Synchron earlier this year about a potential investment after he expressed frustration to Neuralink employees about their slow progress, Reuters reported in August.

  • 6 часов, 28 минут назад 02.12.2022Science
    Westminster Abbey’s lost mediaeval chapel and royal burial site reconstructed

    Experts have reconstructed the appearance of the chapel of St Erasmus — a lost, mediaeval period feature of Westminster Abbey that was used as a Royal burial site. Thought to have been built around 1477, the chapel was commissioned by and became a favoured worshipping place of Elizabeth Woodville (1437–1462) — also known as the “White Queen” — who was the commoner wife of King Edward IV and the grandmother of Henry VIII. However, the chapel was demolished in 1502 and today all that remains is an intricately carved alabaster frame, which can be seen today above the entrance to the chapel of Our Lady of the Pew in the northern ambulatory. Accordingly, its role had become somewhat lost to history.

    To investigate further, Westminster Abbey’s archivist Dr Matthew Payne and Fabric Advisory Commission member John Goodall conducted an extensive analysis of all the available evidence regarding the St Erasmus chapel and its functions.

    Among the documents they studied was a recently-unearthed, centuries-old royal grant which offered an insight as to activities in the chapel — and how the White Queen chose to be buried there.

    In addition, the pair found that the White Queen’s daughter-in-law, the child bride Anne de Mowbray — who married Elizabeth’s son Richard, the Duke of York, when she was five and he four — was interred in the St Erasmus Chapel after her death at age eight.

    Their findings have been used by the illustrator Stephen Conlin to create a reconstruction of how the east end of the Abbey church might have once looked.

    On the prominence of the chapel, Dr Payne said: “The White Queen wished to worship there and, it appears, also to be buried there.

    “The grant declares prayers should be sung ‘around the tomb of our consort (Elizabeth Woodville). The construction, purpose and fate of the St Erasmus chapel therefore deserves more recognition.”

    Mr Goodall agreed, adding: “very little attention has been paid to this short-lived chapel. It receives only passing mention in abbey histories, despite the survival of elements of the reredos.”

    A reredos is a large altarpiece, a screen, or decoration placed behind the altar in a church. The alabaster frame that survives today would have surrounded a central image — likely, the researchers believe, a representation of St Erasmus’s death by disembowelment.

    Differences in the design of the chapel’s reredos with that from the high altar has led the researchers to believe that the former was created by an outsider to the Abbey’s design tradition — a specialist alabaster carver, rather than the Abbey’s master mason Robert Stowell. However, it is likely at Mr Stowell’s encouragement that Abbot John Islip preserved the ornate reredos in 1502 when the chapel was demolished.

    Mr Goodall continued: “The quality of workmanship on this survival suggests that investigation of the original chapel is long overdue.”

    St Erasmus, also known as St Elmo, was the Bishop of Formia, Italy, in the third century BC. He died around 303 BC in the Roman province of Illyricum, in what is today the western Balkans, after being tortured for his role in converting pagans to Christianity.

    He is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, a group of saints venerated together by the Roman Catholic Church because their intercession is thought particularly effective against various diseases. In particular, St Erasmus is regarded as the patron saint of intestinal pain, a connection with a somewhat complicated origin that began with his association with sailors.

    According to legend, Erasmus/Elmo became the patron saint of sailors after he once continued preaching even after a thunderbolt struck the ground next to him. Accordingly, sailors — who were at risk from storms and lightning — would pray to him. It is for this reason that the electrical discharges sometimes seen on the mastheads of ships — seen as a sign of his protection — are known as “St Elmo’s Fire”.

    Because of his connection to sailors, he was sometimes depicted with a windlass — a rotating device often used on ships to raise heavy weights — leading to accounts of his death in which he was tied down to a table while his abdomen was split open and his intestines wound round a windlass in place of the usual rope.

    St Erasmus is also associated with the wellbeing of children, and Dr Payne and Mr Goodall believe that it was for this reason that the chapel at Westminster Abbey — built just a year after the marriage as infants of Anne Mowbray to Richard — was dedicated to him.

    According to the pair, this act reflected “a new and rapidly growing devotion to his cult”, with the chapel having potentially held relics of the Italian bishop — likely including one of his teeth, which Westminster Abbey is known to have once owned.

    However, only some 25 years after its construction, St Erasmus’s chapel was demolished at the behest of Henry VII to make way for the latter and his wife’s chantry and burial place. The Lady Chapel which replaced it, however, was adorned with a statue of Erasmus — perhaps a nod to the now-lost worship place that had preceded it.

    The remains of the White Queen, meanwhile, were relocated next to her husband’s in the St George’s Chapel in Windsor — where many future monarchs, including Elizabeth II, have since also been buried.

    The full findings of the study were published in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association.

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Science King Tutankhamun: The treasure trove revealed inside his tomb 100 years ago this week